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劳胰韧运咧任屯闻 信糜巳形吕腿

软綦鲨 镱痤驿噱 铐铎桕 鲥臌 觐祜脲犟 礤汔蜩忭 镱耠邃耱忤, 镱铎 泐耋溧瘃 怏 礤钺躅滂祛 镳桧桁囹 戾鸪, 磬镳噔脲眄 磬 邋 镳邃铗怵帙屙桢. 铖眍忭 纛痨囔 犷瘘猁 桧綦鲨彘 铗眍蝰 溴礤骓 疱纛痨 囗蜩桧綦鲨铐磬 镱腓蜩赅 (痂.

35).

腻礤骓 疱纛痨. 雾 镳钼钿桦桉 篑腩忤 戾 嚯腓麇耜钽 溴礤骓 钺疣龛 - 镳 皴疱狃眍 桦 珙腩蝾 耱囗溧痱* 蝾 麒耠 镱耠 怛铕铋 扈痤忸 忸轫, 觐沅 溴轳蜮钼嚯 珙腩蝾溴忤珥 桦 珙腩蝾漕腚囵钼 耱囗溧痱.

项耠 铌铐鬣龛 忸轫 疱忸膻鲨 耱噌桦桤圉 溴礤骓钽 钺疣龛 赅 钿桧 桤 忄骓彘 耧铖钺钼 忸耨蜞眍怆屙 铐铎桕 铖簌羼蜮豚顸 镳 镱祛 耠邃簋 戾蝾漕: 眢腚梏桕圉梃, 疱耱噔疣鲨 (疱忄朦忄鲨), 溴忄朦忄鲨 溴眍扈磬鲨.

腕腚梏桕圉 铉磬鬣弪 囗眢腓痤忄龛 耔朦眍 钺羼鲥礤眄铋 邃桧栩 忖邃屙桢 眍忸 忄膻螓, 泥, 缅痨囗梃 疱珞朦蜞蝈 镱耠邂-

理蜩桧綦鲨铐睇 戾蝾潲

描. 35. 理蜩桧綦鲨铐睇 戾蝾潲

屙鲱 汨镥痂眙鲨 20- 沣. 珥圜栩咫钽 钺羼鲥礤龛 疱轷耢囵觇 忖邃屙磬 钺疣龛 1924 , 眍忄 爨痍 钺戾龛忄豚顸 耦铗眍龛 1:1 蝠腠 耱囵 疱轷耢囵铌. 橡彐 溴礤骓 邃桧桷 猁豚 囗眢腓痤忄磬.

绣耱噔疣鲨 - 忸耨蜞眍怆屙桢 镳彐礤泐 俏宋椅梦 耦溴疰囗 莫-

礤骓铋 邃桧桷. 袜镳桁屦, 镱耠 镥疴铋 扈痤忸 忸轫 忸 怵屐 溴礤骓铋 疱纛痨 1925 1928 沣. 理汶梃 猁腩 忸耨蜞眍怆屙 漕忸屙眍 珙腩蝾 耦溴疰囗桢 趔眚 耱屦腓磴钼. 项耠 怛铕铋 扈痤忸 忸轫 疱耱噔疣鲨 (疱忄朦忄鲨) 镳钼钿桦囫 矬蝈 镱恹龛 铘桷栲朦眍泐 忄膻蝽钽 牦瘃 漕腚囵, 玎蝈 体驿箜囵钿睇 忄膻蝽 纛礓 疱汨耱痂痤忄 镱恹龛 珙腩蝾泐 耦溴疰囗 溴礤骓铋 邃桧桷. 亦, 孕 镳钼咫 疣礻圊 琉 镱- 箐 觐 忄膻蝽铋 耔耱屐 蝠 疱忄朦忄鲨 ( 1961,1969 1971 沣.). 湾钿眍牮囹睇 疱忄朦忄鲨 镳钼钿桦  耱疣磬 疣礻圊 赔痤镥轳觐 忄膻蝽铋 耔耱屐, 沅 耦躔囗腭 疱骅 翳犟桊钼囗睇 忄  韌t; 旷 牦瘃钼.

疱忄朦忄鲨 - 耥桄屙桢 穷腩蝾泐 耦溴疰囗 溴礤骓铋 邃桧桷, 镱耠 怛铕铋 扈痤忸 忸轫 - 铘桷栲朦眍泐 忄膻蝽钽 牦瘃 漕腚囵 沿 邈 珙腩蝾泐 耦溴疰囗/* 亦, 疱珞朦蜞蝈 溻篚 溴忄朦忄鲨 漕腚囵 邈 穷腩蛭 耦溴疰囗桢 猁腴 淹孺屙 溴赅狃 1971 . 镟 7,89%, 翦怵嚯 1973 . - 磬 10%, 项耠 忖邃屙 镫噔帼 忄膻蝽 牦瘃钼 1973 , 溴忄朦忄鲨 镳钼钿栩 腓 沭箫镨痤怅 忄膻蝽 牦瘃囔 - 赔痤镥轳觐 忄膻蝽铋 戾寤, 磬 徉珏 觐蝾痤 猁豚 耦玟囗 赔痤镥轳赅 忄膻蝽 耔耱屐.

腻眍扈磬鲨 -  戾蝾 圜屦觇忄龛 眢溴榛, 蝾 羼螯 箨痼镯屙桢 爨聒蜞徉 鲥颺 鬣耱眍耱, 琉噻桦梃 1988 , 猁豚 忖邃屙 眍忄 溴礤骓 邃桧桷 眍牮箸噤, 忤忄脲眚磬 1000 镳彐龛 钺羼鲥礤眄 牮箸噤. R 蓄耨梃 1998 , 蜞赕 镳钼钿桦囫 溴眍扈磬鲨 痼犭 耦铗眍龛 1:1000 耱囵 痼徜彘-

理蜩桧綦鲨铐镟 镱腓蜩赅 - 觐祜脲犟 戾 镱 泐耋溧瘃蜮屙眍祗 疱泱腓痤忄龛 铐铎桕, 磬镳噔脲眄 磬 犷瘘狍 桧綦鲨彘. 铗镥 磬 忡噼祛溴轳蜮桢 羿牝铕钼 桧綦鲨 耧痤襦 桧綦鲨 桤溴疰尻 铘铕扈腓顸 溻 铖眍忭 腓龛 囗蜩桧綦鲨铐眍 镱腓蜩觇 溴綦鲨铐磬 镱腓蜩赅 (桦 疱泱腓痤忄龛 耧痤襦) 镱腓蜩赅 漕躅漕 (桦 疱泱腓痤忄龛 桤溴疰尻). 痤戾 蝾泐, 镱忤腩顸 眍忸 磬镳噔脲龛 - 觐黻箴屙蝽铄 耱桁箅桊钼囗桢 镳铊玮钿耱忄. 朽耨祛蝠桁 桴 镱漯钺礤,

  1. 腻綦鲨铐磬 镱腓蜩赅 -  戾蝾潲 钽疣龛麇龛 溴礤骓钽 耧痤襦 麇疱 溴礤骓-牮邃栩睇 磬腩泐恹 戾踵龛珈 矬蝈 耥桄屙 泐耋溧瘃蜮屙睇 疣聃钿钼, 镱恹龛 镳铞屙蝽铋 耱噔觇 玎 牮邃栩, 篑桦屙 磬腩泐忸泐 镳羼襦, 畛疣龛黢龛 溴礤骓铋 爨耨 . . 务钺屙眍耱 溴綦鲨铐眍 镱腓 桕 玎觌噱蝰 蝾, 黩 铐, 赅 镳噔桦, 恹琨忄弪1 玎戾潆屙桢 铐铎梓羼觐泐 痤耱 溧驽 牮桤桉睇 怆屙. 项铎 犷朦眈蜮 镳噔栩咫蜮 镳 邋 镳钼邃屙梃 60 70- . 镳怆腓 皲屦驵眄铖螯 桦 忸怦 铗赅琨忄腓顸 铗 礤,
  1. 项腓蜩赅 漕躅漕 镳邃镱豚汔弪 镟疣腚咫 觐眚痤朦 磬 鲥磬扈 玎疣犷蝽铋 镫囹铋 矬蝈 镱腠钽 桴 玎祛疣骅忄龛 桦 篑蜞眍怆屙 镳邃咫钼 桴 痤耱.
    项 耦鲨嚯 祛蜩忄 铗 忤 囗蜩桧綦鲨铐眍 镱腓蜩觇 镳桁屙弪 疱潢. 蝾 驽 怵屐 铒 桉镱朦珙忄龛 镱腓蜩觇 漕躅漕 沿 镳 镳彗桎屙蝈 丸犟铐, 洛腓觐狃栩囗梃 镳 脲獒铕桉蝰觇 镳噔栩咫蜮圊, 殃囗滂磬怦觇 耱疣磬 疋桎弪咫蜮箦 钺 畛疣梃麇锍蜩 邋 疱珞朦蜞蝾. 骂-镥疴, 玎戾潆屙桢 痤耱 鲥 恹琨忄腩 溴翳鲨 礤觐蝾瘥 蝾忄痤, 忸-怛铕, 痤耱 鲥 皲屦骅忄腭 腓 磬 铒疱溴脲眄铄 怵屐, 铗戾眍 畛疣扈麇镨 铐 耥钼 篑觐腭.

锣痂囗螓 囗蜩桧綦鲨铐眍 镱腓蜩觇 恹徼疣腓顸 玎忤耔祛耱 铗 镳桀痂蝈蝾. 篷腓 耱噔桦囫 鲥朦 皲屦骅忄龛 铐铎梓羼觐泐 痤耱, 蝾 镳钼钿桦囫 溴綦鲨铐磬 镱腓蜩赅, 羼腓 驽 鲥朦 猁腩 耱桁箅桊钼囗桢 铐铎梓羼觐泐 痤耱, 蝾 镳邃镱黩屙桢 铗溧忄腩顸 镱腓蜩赍 漕躅漕. 耠篦噱, 觐沅 鲥朦 猁腩 钺箸溧龛 桧綦鲨 膻犷 鲥眍, 镟疣腚咫 桉镱朦珙忄腓顸 钺 皴 戾蝾溧.

洋耱怏 漯筱桢 体蝾潲, 磬镳噔脲眄 镟 秧桄屙桢 软綦鲨铐睇 镳铞羼耦.

暑黻箴屙蝽铄 耱桁箅桊钼囗桢 镳铊玮钿耱忄 -  戾瘥, 磬镳噔脲眄 赅 镟 镳祛 耱桁箅桊钼囗桢 镳铊玮钿耱忄 矬蝈 珥圜栩咫钽 耥桄屙 磬腩泐 磬 觐痫铕圉梃, 蜞 磬 觐疋屙眍 耱桁箅桊钼囗桢 襻屦彐屙栝 磬皴脲龛 矬蝈 耥桄屙 镱滂躅漤钽 磬腩汔.

蚂羼蝈 蝈 耱嚯 镳桁屙螯 戾瘥, 耱桁箅桊簋 瘥眍黜簋 觐黻箴屙鲨 耥桄帼 邋 忸玟彘耱忤 磬 鲥睇 耧桊嚯 囵噌铗磬 镫囹 - 鲥睇. 袜镳桁屦, 沿 噤扈龛耱疣鲨 , 绣殂囗 铗赅玎豚顸 铗 泐耋溧瘃蜮屙眍 镱滗屦骊 蜞觇 爨腩 觐黻箴屙蝽 铗疣耠彘, 赅 麇痦 戾蜞腚箴汔^, 噔蝾祛徼脲耱痤屙桢, 蝈犟蜩朦磬 钺筲磬 镳铎脲眄铖螯, 铗 恹玮嚯 忸腠 耠龛 牮箫睇 觐祜囗栝. 疱珞朦蜞蝈 疱珀 忸琊铖 觐黻箴屙鲨 耧铖钺耱忸忄豚 箪屙屙棹 桧綦鲨 漕 铍珞麒趸 纛痨, 蜞赕 铖豚犭屙棹 桧綦鲨铐眍 耧桊嚯 囵噌铗磬 镫囹 - 鲥睇.

五钺铋 纛痨铋 犷瘘猁 桧綦鲨彘, 觐蝾痼 桉镱腱物殡 耱疣睇 (项朦, 如疣桦, 妙耨) 镳 汔腩镨痼彘 桧綦鲨, 猁豚 觐忄 蝈疣镨. 洋螯 皴 - 耱桁箅桊钼囗梃 疣玮栩 痂眍鞒 滁初 铗眍龛, 疋钺钿眍 鲥眍钺疣珙忄龛, 铗赅珏 铗 疱泱腓痤忄龛 鲥 , 赅 疱珞朦蜞, 耥桄屙梃 骅珥屙眍泐 箴钼 磬皴脲龛.

暑眚痤朦睇 忸镳铖

  1. 昨 蜞觐 溴礤骓 疱纛痨 镳 镱祛 赅觇 戾蝾漕 铐 镳钼钿栩?
  2. 麇 玎觌噱蝰 耋铖螯 囗蜩桧綦鲨铐眍 镱腓蜩觇 泐耋溧瘃蜮?
  3. 枢觐恹 铖眍忭 磬镳噔脲龛 镳钼邃屙 囗蜩桧綦鲨铐眍 镱腓蜩觇?

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锐蝾黜桕: 隋铐螯邂 . ., 绵潢钼耜 II. .. 澡磬眈, 溴睃汨, 牮邃栩 徉黻: 喻遽眍 镱耦徼-严.: 琼囗桢, 嚷菅菝1,2003.- 384 .. 2003

霹 镱 蝈戾 劳胰韧运咧任屯闻 信糜巳形吕腿:

  1. 4.2. 理蜩桧綦鲨铐磬 镱腓蜩赅
  2. 8.2.3. 务眍忭 磬镳噔脲龛 囗蜩桧綦鲨铐眍 镱腓蜩觇
  3. 8.2.3. 务眍忭 磬镳噔脲龛 囗蜩桧綦鲨铐眍 镱腓蜩觇
  4. 6.3. 绣泱腓痤忄龛 瘥黻 篑塍
  5. 8.2.3. 务眍忭 磬镳噔脲龛 囗蜩桧綦鲨铐眍 镱腓蜩觇
  6. 6.2. 妙耋溧瘃蜮屙眍 疱泱腓痤忄龛 桧綦鲨.
  7. 理蜩桧綦鲨铐磬 镱腓蜩赅: 纛痨 戾蝾潲
  8. 劳胰韧运咧任屯闻 信糜巳形吕腿
  9. 遗汤牋 8 .韧运咧冗 劳胰韧运咧任屯闻 信糜巳形吕腿 菔瓮翁仁
  10. 劳胰韧运咧任屯肋 衔巳胰世
  11. 韧运咧冗 劳胰韧运咧任屯闻 信糜巳形吕腿 菔瓮翁仁
  12. 理蜩桧綦鲨铐磬 镱腓蜩赅: 赍轫耔囗耜铄 祛礤蜞痂耱耜铄 磬镳噔脲龛.
- 棱蝾瘃觐 镳噔 - 楞疣痦铄 镳噔 - 冷忸赅蝮疣 - 冷扈龛耱疣蜩忭铄 镳噔 - 冷扈龛耱疣蜩忭 镳铞羼 - 理蜩祛眍镱朦眍-觐黻箴屙蝽铄 镳噔 - 鲤徼蝠噫睇 (躅轳蜮屙睇) 镳铞羼 - 荔滂 - 拎黻钼耜 耔耱屐 - 拎黻钼耜铄 镳噔 - 凌珥羼 - 馏蹉嚯蝈瘃觇 篦弪 - 洛铄 镳噔 - 妙耋溧瘃蜮屙眍 镳噔 箫疣怆屙桢 - 灭噫溧眈觐 镳噔 镳铞羼 - 腻礤骓铄 钺疣龛, 翳磬眈 牮邃栩 - 腻睃汨 - 蔫镫铎囹梓羼觐 觐眈箅觐 镳噔 - 念泐忸痦铄 镳噔 - 畦腓铄 镳噔 - 清戾朦眍 镳噔 - 如徼疣蝈朦眍 镳噔 - 软忮耱桷桀眄铄 镳噔 - 软纛痨圉桀眄铄 镳噔 - 锐镱腠栩咫铄 镳铊玮钿耱忸 - 锐蝾痂 - 锐蝾痂 泐耋溧瘃蜮 镳噔 - 锐蝾痂 镱腓蜩麇耜桴 镳噔钼 篦屙栝 - 暑黻箴耥铄 镳噔 - 暑眈蜩蝮鲨铐眍 镳噔 - 暑痫铕囹桠眍 镳噔 - 署桁桧嚯桉蜩赅 - 署桁桧铍钽 - 锑痍弪桧 - 体滂鲨眈觐 镳噔 - 体驿箜囵钿眍 镳噔 - 体礤滏戾眚 - 腆龛鲨镟朦眍 镳噔 - 袜腩泐忸 镳噔 - 袜耠邃耱忮眄铄 镳噔 - 皖蜞痂囹 - 吾玎蝈朦耱忮眄铄 镳噔 - 物屦囹桠眍-痤琨耜磬 溴蝈朦眍耱 - 橡噔 麇腩忮赅 - 橡噔 玎痼徨骓 耱疣 - 橡噔 耦鲨嚯钽 钺羼镥麇龛 - 橡噔钼邃屙桢 - 橡噔铑躔囗栩咫 溴蝈朦眍耱 - 橡邃镳桧桁囹咫觐 镳噔 - 彦戾轫铄 镳噔 - 羊疣躅忸 镳噔 - 洋漕镳铊玮钿耱忸 - 亦祛驽眄铄 镳噔 - 义铕 泐耋溧瘃蜮 镳噔 - 茵箐钼铄 镳噔 - 鱼铍钼眍-桉镱腠栩咫铄 镳噔 - 鱼铍钼眍 镳噔 - 鱼铍钼睇 镳铞羼 - 澡腩耦翳 - 澡磬眈钼铄 镳噔 - 疹轳蜮屙眍 镳噔 - 疹轳蜮屙睇 镳铞羼 - 蓐铍钽梓羼觐 镳噔 - 蓐铐铎桕 - 掴屙嚯铄 镳噔 - 摒桎梓羼赅 溴蝈朦眍耱 - 摒桎梓羼赅 蝈蹴桕 - 摒桎梓羼觇 腓鲟 -