E* Make a summary of the text

Use the active vocabulary,

^ E Grammar notes Reported Speech

Reported speech is the exact meaning of what someone said but not the exact words. When we quote someone’s actual words, we can use reporting verbs.

We can report statements, questions, requests, orders, thoughts, etc.


Here is a list of common reporting verbs.

say reply suggest add admit advise
agree ask answer claim demand
promise remind report tell order insist
persuade reply think mention

E. g.: They say that we will receive the confirmation next week.

She mentioned that the date of the next meeting hasn’t been fixed yet. He promised that the conference would be ready for us when we arrived.

/warned them not to put up their prices hy more than the annual rate of inflation.

Reported speech takes two forms: main clause              subordinate clause

They say              that the meeting will he held next              week.

main clause              an infinitive with to

They asked us              to send the reply as soon              as possible.

In reported speech, the verb tense of the main clause determines that of the subordinate clause. If the verb of the main clause is in the Present of Future tense the verb of the subordinate clause is the same (no changes).

  1. g.: “I want to promote you,” the director says. — The director says that he wants to promote me.

“We shall send you our confirmation soon,” the boss replies.

— The boss replies that they will send their confirm avion soon.

If the verb of the main clause is in the past the verb of the subordinate clause changes according to the rule of sequence of tenses.

Verb tense in direct speech:              Verb tense in reported speech:

  • Present simple;              •              Past              simple;
  • Present continuous;              •              Past              continuous;
  • Present perfect;              •              Past              perfect;
  • Past simple;              •              Past              perfect;
  • will, can, or may + verb. • would, could, or might + verb.
  1. g.: She said, “We have a deal.” — She said (that) they had a deal.

She said, “1 have made a deal. ” — She said that she had made a deal.

She said, “I will confirm the deal next week.” -- She said that she would confirm the deal the following week.

In reported speech certain words change as follows depending on the context.

Direct Speech:              Reported Speech:

this/these;              •              that/those;

here;              •              there;

come;              •              go;

tonight, today, this week; •              that night, that day;

now;              •              then, at that time, at once, immediately;

now that;              •              since;

yesterday;              •              the day before;

Vast;              •              the previous;

tomorrow;              •              the following day;

next;              •              the following;

ago.              •              before.

The verb tense of direct speech does not change:

  1. when the words spoken state a general truth: e. g., The teacher explained that it takes Mars 1.88 years to circle the Sun;
  2. when the words spoken express a habitual action referring to the present: e.
    g., He said he always goes to bed early;
  3. where the words spoken are still true: e. g., He said Professor Pyke is in Room 110.

Questions, Requests, Orders or Commands in the Reported Speech

Reported questions. In reported questions we use the affirmative word order and do not use quotation marks or a question mark. We use reported question to ask for information, advice or to report someone else’s questions, suggestions, offers or requests.

To report a question we use: a) ask, want to know, wonder, cannot remember, inquire + wh-word (who, where, why, what, etc. or how far, how, how long) when the direct question begins with a wh-word; b) ask + if/whether when the direct question begins with an auxiliary verb (do, have, can, etc.). We must use whether not if, when we are asking someone to make a choice.

  1. g.: “Do you want to consult anyone?” they asked. — They asked me whether I wanted to consult anyone.

We must also use ‘whether’ when we include the phrase ‘or not’.

  1. g.: “Are you going to tell me the answer or not?” she said. — She asked him whether he was going to tell her the answer or not.

Tense changes for reported questions in the past are the same as for reported statements.

Reported requests and commands (orders). When we report requests, orders or commands, we use an introductory verb (advise, ask, beg, offer, order, suggest, tell, etc) followed by a to-infinitive.

  1. g.: “Hand in your reports, ” he said to us. — He told us to hand in our reports.

“Can I come in?”he asked. — He asked to come in.

“Please let me take part in the negotiations,” he said. —He begged to let him take part in the negotiations.

When we are reporting negative orders, requests, etc. not goes before the to-infinitive.

  1. g.: “Don’t do it, please, ” she asked him.
    — She begged him not to do it.

“Never tell lies, ” the supervisor said. — The supervisor taught us not to tell lies.

  1. l. Report the following conversations.
  1. Good morning. Personnel corps.
  2. Hello, my name is Neef, Walter Neef. I would like some information on your agency. Can you help me?
  1. Yes, certainly. What would you like to know?
  2. I’m looking for a non-profit agency. Is this a non-profit agency?
  1. No, it isn’t; we are a private agency, dealing with technical and high- salaried jobs.
  2. Thank you. I’m looking for a secretarial job or any non-skilled position. Can you give me the telephones of the agencies specializing in this field?
  1. With pleasure, but the list is very long. You can find the information you need in our leaflet. Our working hours are from 10 to 7 pm.
  2. Thank von. Good-bye.
  1. Good-bye. Have a nice day.
  2. You too.
  1. Manpower. What can I do for you?
  2. I’d like to talk to the employment counselor about a job. Will the counselor be able to see me today?
  1. Hold the line. I’ll consult the diary. Yes, Mr. Brown, are you there? Mr. Fraser can see you between 10 and 12. What time would be convenient for you?
  2. Let’s make it 10:30.
  1. All right, Mr. Brown, 10:30 today.
  2. Thank you. Good-bye.

A. Good-bye.

  1. 2. Transform the newspaper report which follows into an interview between a journalist and SEC’s chairman.

Asked over lunch with the SEC in September if he thought that the new oversight board should set new rules on audit quality, or whether the accounting industry should continue to write audit standards itself, he said that the board should do it. He added that he favours rotating audit firms every five to seven years to stop auditors cosying up to their clients.

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Источник: Е. Н. Малюга. Английский язык для экономистов: Учебник для вузов / Е. Н. Малюга, Н.              В. Ваванова, Г. Н. Куприянова, И. В. Пушнова. — СПб.: Питер,2005. — 304 с.: ил.. 2005

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