E* Make a summary of the text

Use the active vocabulary.

j? E Grammar notes Sentences of Real and Unreal Condition

Conditional sentences have two parts: the if-clause and the main clause.

  1. g.: If you post the invitations today, they will arrive on time.

There are three types of conditionals:

  • type 1 — true in the present;
  • type 2 — untrue in the present;
  • type 3 — imaginary, contrary to focus in the past.

The usage of the verb forms in conditionals is presented in the tables below.

Type 1 — Real Present

If-clause: ‘if + any present form (Present S., Present Cont. or Present Perfect).

Main clause: ‘can/may/might/should’ + bare infinitive Present Simple.

This type of sentence is used to express something true or likely to happen in the present or the future.

E. g.: If you finish work early, we’ 11 meet to go out.

If you have finished your work, you can go for a walk.

If you are busy, I won’t keep you long.

Type 2 — Unreal Present

If-clause: ‘if + Past Simple or Past Continuous.

Main clause: ‘would/could/might’ + bare infinitive.

This type of sentence is used to express something untrue in the present, it is also used to give advice.

  1. g.: If I had money, / would travel round the world (= but I don’t’ have money — untrue in the present).

If I were you, / would take this job (advice).

After if we normally use were instead of was in all persons in type 2 conditionals in formal situations. Was is mainly used in spoken English.

  1. g.: If I were/was you, I wouldn’t go on this business trip.

Type 3 — Unreal Past

If-clause Main clause
If + Past Perfect or Past Perfect Contin would/could/might+ have + past parti
uous ciple

This type of sentence is used to express imaginary situation contrary to facts in the past; also it is used to express regrets or criticism.

  1. g.: If you had accepted his offer last month, you wouldn’t have been

more successful.

When the if-clause precedes the main clause, we separate the two clauses with a comma.

Conditionals are usually introduced by: if, unless, providing, provided (that), as long as, in case, on condition (that), but for (= without), otherwise, or else, what if, supposing, even if, only if.

  1. g.: Unless you don’t reserve a ticket, you won’t get a seat.

Only if you reserve a ticket, will you get a seat.

But for you, / wouldn’t have got that job.

What if you are sacked, will you look for the similar job?

You will get a promotion, providing/ provided that/as long as you work hard.

When we omit if should, would and had (past Perfect) come before the subject.

  1. g.: Should he turn up, tell him to wait forme. = If he turns up, tell him to wait for me.
  2. l. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense form.
  1. If you (order) in bulk, you (get) a discount.
  2. If we (break) into this market, out turnover (increase) substantially.
  3. If your main competitor (go bankrupt), we (increase) our market share.
  4. Unless we (receive) payment by the end of the week we (be forced) to consider legal action.
  5. We (be able) to reduce the number of hours worked on condition that (is) increase in productivity.
  6. If the Chinese government (warn) about the new decease, the consequences (be) less damaging.
  7. If foreign-owned manufacturers (can) thrive despite all the annoyance of life in Britain, why (not/can) the locals?
  8. If stock markets (fall) much further, the big banks’ capital adequacy ratios (can) go below the level that international rules require.
  9. If inflation (fall) too, it (may) be impossible to cut real interest rate enough to spur demand.


If (there/be) no surge in investment, the country (suffer) from nationwide electricity shortages.
  1. 2. Complete the following sentences using the appropriate type of conditional.
  1. If one can not be sure which way asset prices will move,....
  2. If productivity comes at the expense of jobs, it....
  3. In case oil prices increase, it....
  4. Unless vaccine for SARS is found,....
  5. If the market is oversupplied,....
  1. Speak up
  1. l. Answer the following questions.
  1. What do governments and companies use markets in securities for?
  2. What is the secondary market? Give an example.
  3. One American tycoon punned saying “Gentlemen prefer bonds.” What did he mean?
  4. What account for most of what is traded in the financial markets?
  5. What are the investment perspectives in your country?
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Источник: Е. Н. Малюга. Английский язык для экономистов: Учебник для вузов / Е. Н. Малюга, Н.              В. Ваванова, Г. Н. Куприянова, И. В. Пушнова. — СПб.: Питер,2005. — 304 с.: ил.. 2005

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