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Use the active vocabulary.

j? E Grammar notes

\'One’ and It’

§ 1. ‘It’ as an ‘empty subject’. We often use ‘it’ in sentences referring to time, the weather, temperature or distance.

When used in this way, it is sometimes called an empty subject because it carries no real information. It is present because every English sentence has to contain a subject and a verb. It is used in sentences with:
  • time: It s 8 o’clock. It’s Tuesday. It’s May 25th;
  • weather: It’s hot. It’s raining. It rains a lot here;
  • temperature: It’s 37° centigrade/Celsius]
  • distance: It’s 20 miles to/from London]
  • the tides: It’s high tide at 11.44]
  • environment: It’s noisy/smoky in here]
  • present situation: Isn’t it awful! Isn’t it a shame;
  • it’s time ... It’s time (for us) to leave]
  • with since: It’s three years since we last met]
  • with says: It says here there was a big fire in Hove]
  • with take: It takes (us) half an hour to get to work.

And note many expressions with it, e. g., it doesn’t matter; it’s no use, (‘it’ as a subject); I’ve had it; That does it! (‘it’ as an object).

§ 2. ‘It’ as a ‘preparatory subject’. Sometimes sentences beginning with ‘it’ continue with an infinitive, a gerund or a noun clause. It is possible to begin such sentences with an infinitive or gerund, but we generally prefer ‘it’.

  • E. g.: It’s pleasant to lie in the sun (To lie in the sun is pleasant).
  • It’s pleasant lying in the sun (Lying in the sun is pleasant).
  • It’s a shame that he isn’t here (That he isn’t here is a shame).
  • It doesn’t matter when we arrive (When we anive doesn’t matter).

§ 3. General statements with ‘one’ and ‘you’. ‘One’ used as an indefinite pronoun meaning ‘everyone/anyone’ is sometimes applied (formally) in general statements: World trade is improving, but one cannot expect miracles.

In everyday speech, the informal ‘you’ is preferred: Can you buy refrigerators in Lapland? (= Can anyone ...?).

‘One’ may be used to replace T, but this tends to sound pompous: One likes to have one’s breakfast in bed now and again.

‘One’ can be linked with ‘one’s’, just as you can be linked with your. However, constructions with ‘one’, ‘one’s’ and ‘oneself are often awkward because of the repetition of ‘one’.

  1. g.: One should do one’s best at all times. (Better: You should do your best at all times).

One shouldn’t be too hard on oneself. (Better: You shouldn’t be too hard on yourself).

In AmE ‘one’s/oneself’ can be replaced by ‘his/her’, ‘himself/herself:

One should give himself/herself a holiday from time to time. (For the use of the passive in place of one).

  1. l. Identify all dumpy ‘it’ or ‘one’ in the text “Costand Production” and translate the sentences into Russian.
  1. 2. Rewrite these sentences beginning ‘It ...’ if it is appropriate in written English. The first has been done for you.
  1. To drive a car without a licence is illegal. E. g.: It is illegal to drive a car without a licence.
  2. That she wasn’t hurt in the fall was a miracle.
  3. Their decision was a serious setback.
  4. The announcement is to be made this evening.
  5. Where the light was coming from was far from clear.
  6. That you already know my secret is obvious.
  7. If the two countries don’t reach an agreement soon will be surprising.
  8. The parcel I was expecting has arrived.
  1. 3. Match up the sentences and write ones beginning with ‘It ...’, ‘that...’, as in the example: It appears likely that the President will be reelected. A number of alternative answers are possible:
  1. the President will be re-elected;
  1. this transpired during the trial;
  2. this follows the results of the survey;
  3. this appears likely;
  4. this seemed to be the case;
  5. this emerged after the concert.
  1. Beckman had a wrist injury for most of the match;
  2. this was to be the band’s last world tour;
  3. Jacobs possessed three handguns;
  4. people are happy with the quality of supermarket food.

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Источник: Е. Н. Малюга. Английский язык для экономистов: Учебник для вузов / Е. Н. Малюга, Н.              В. Ваванова, Г. Н. Куприянова, И. В. Пушнова. — СПб.: Питер,2005. — 304 с.: ил.. 2005

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