Е. Make a summary of the text

Use the active vocabulary.

^ R Grammar notes

The Infinitive

§ 1. The bare infinitive. The base form of a verb (go) often functions as an infinitive. It is called the bare infinitive because it is used without to.

We must distinguish it from the to-infinitive, where to is always used in front of the base form of the verb.

§ 2. Forms of the infinitive.



active passive
present infinitive (to) ask (to) be asked
present progressive infinitive (to) be asking
perfect or past infinitive (to) have asked (to) have been asked
perfect/past progressive infinitive (to) have been asking

Passive Present Progressive and Perfect Progressive infinitives are rarely used.

The Present Infinitive refers to the present or future. We plan to reduce our energy consumption in the New Year. The present Progressive Infinitive expresses an action happening now. We appear to be making very good progress. The Perfect Infinitive is used to show that the action of the infinitive happened before the action of the verb. The problem seems to have occurred during the night. The Perfect Progressive Infinitive is used to emphasize the duration of the action of the infinitive, which happened before the action of the main verb. He looks tired. He seems to have been working all night.

§ 3. The ‘to-infinitive’ is used:

  • to express purpose. He went to university to become a manager,
  • after certain verbs (agree, appear, decide, expect, hope, plan, promise, refuse, etc.). She refused to pay the bill]
  • after certain adjectives (happy, glad, sorry, etc.). We were happy to open a new store;
  • after ‘I would like/would love/would prefer’ to express specific preference. I’d like to see the manager,
  • after certain nouns. What a surprise to see you here! Our decision to wait was wise. It was her wish to help us\\
  • after ‘too/enough’ constructions. We’ve got enough money to pay the]
  • with: ‘it’ + ‘be’ + adjective (+ of + noun/pronoun). It was generous of him to offer $ 1000;
  • with: ‘so’ + adjective + ‘as’. Would you be so kind as to help me?
  • with ‘only’ to express an unsatisfactory result. She came in only to find the manager had left;
  • after: ‘be + the first/second/etc/next/last/best’, etc. He is always the last to come to work,
  • in the expression: ‘for’ + noun/pronoun + to-infinitive. For him to be so rude was unforgivable\
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Источник: Е. Н. Малюга. Английский язык для экономистов: Учебник для вузов / Е. Н. Малюга, Н.              В. Ваванова, Г. Н. Куприянова, И. В. Пушнова. — СПб.: Питер,2005. — 304 с.: ил.. 2005

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