^ E Grammar notes Causative

§ 1. Formation. The causative is formed with ‘have’ + noun or pronoun object + the past participle of a verb, regular or irregular.

  1. g.: /Ve just had my car repaired.

§ 2.

The use of the causative for things. The causative is similar to the passive. We focus on what is done to something or someone, not on what is someone does.

Active: Гm servicing my car. Jack is servicing my car.

Passive: My car is being serviced (someone is doing the job for me). Causative: I’m having my car serviced (I’m responsible for causing someone to do the job for me).

Care must be taken with the word order to avoid confusion:

  1. g.: I had built a house (past perfect).

I had a house built (causative: simple past).

When we use the passive or the causative, we may not know or may not need to name who performs a service for us. However, in contrast to the passive, we use the causative to stress the fact that we are “causing” someone else to perform a service for us. We therefore often use it with such verbs as build, clean, decorate, deliver, develop (a film), mend, photocopy, press, print, repair, and service. We do not normally use the active (I am servicing my car) to mean that someone else is doing something for us. Nor can we say — I want to cut my hair — when we mean — I want to have my haircut. Note that ‘by’ + agent is added only when it is necessary to mention who or what did the action:

We’re having/getting the job done by some local builders. They are much cheaper.

§ 3. The use of the causative for people. The causative with verbs like coach, instruct, prepare, teach and train can refer to things we cause to be done to other people.

  1. g.: active: Гm teaching her English (i. e., I’m teaching her myself).

Passive: She’s being taught English (і.

e., I may not know or wish to

name the teacher).

Causative: Гт having her taught English (i. e., I’m responsible for causing someone to do the job).

  1. l. Identify causatives in the text “Global problems need global solutions” and translate the sentences into Russian.
  1. 2. Complete the following sentences, using the verb given in parenthesis. The first has been done for you.
  1. The painting was so original that he decided to have it framed (frame).
  2. The heel of her shoe came off; she ... (repair).
  3. The water tap is dripping; I ... (fix).
  4. The house was too old; the Mayor ... (pull down).
  5. The tires are worn out; Mr. Ford ... (replace).
  6. This skirt is too long now; she ... (shorten).
  7. Mr. Scott’s nose was too wide; he ... (operate).
  8. The tree branches were too long; the Smiths ... (trim).
  9. I went to the hairdresser’s to ... (hair/cut).
  10. You should take your car to the mechanic to ... (brakes/repair).
  11. For their wedding anniversary, Mary, ...which they ate at a large party (big cake/make).
  12. I have to ...otherwise I can’t work on my thesis (computer/repair).
  13. “Did John repair your roof?” “No, we ... that he knows” (it/do/builder).
  14. We ... and he said it was worth over a thousand dollars (statue/value/art expert).
  15. We should... before the summer begins. It’s looking dirty (pool/clean).
  16. The local council want all dog owners to ...to reduce the problem of strays (dogs/tag).
  17. I broke the heel on my shoe this morning and now I need to... (it/repair).
  18. After the car accident, Cynthia had to ... and looked as she did before (nose/reshape/famous plastic surgeon).
  1. 3. Rewrite the sentences using have or get. Decide whether or not you want to emphasize who does or did the work.
  1. All our export risks are insured.

we              ;

  1. The garage services my car every 15,000 kilometres.


  1. A specialist agency translates all the company documentation and manuals (two possible answers).

We і

We              .

  1. We’ve asked the contractors to build a new extension (two possible answers).



  1. The legal department drew up the contract on my instructions (two possible answers).

I              ,


  1. 4. React to the statements below using the word in brackets, as in the example.

My passport expires soon (Renew).

I need to have it renewed.

  1. The printer only works sporadically (Fix).
  2. Mrs. Baxter is going on a training course (Replace).
  3. The outside windows are incredibly dirty (Clean).
  4. I’m not sure the figures are entirely accurate (Check).
  1. Speak up
  1. l. Answer the following questions.
  1. How do you think political and economic measures can be combined to handle any environmental problem?
  2. Which measure do you think is more efficient?
  1. 2. Discussion topics.
  1. “One of the benefits of free trade is that it corrects the distortion caused by pollution.” Do you agree or disagree? Why?
  2. Which of the following probably violate the rules of the WTO:
  1. a country’s government places a tax on domestic production to reduce pollution caused by this production;
  2. a country’s government restricts imports of goods produced using production methods that would violate the importing country’s environmental protection laws;
  3. a country’s government restricts imports of goods, to reduce pollution caused by consumption of the goods.
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Источник: Е. Н. Малюга. Английский язык для экономистов: Учебник для вузов / Е. Н. Малюга, Н.              В. Ваванова, Г. Н. Куприянова, И. В. Пушнова. — СПб.: Питер,2005. — 304 с.: ил.. 2005

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