Grammar notes


§ 1. Inversion after adverbs. Sometimes in a sentence the normal sub- ject-verb order can be reversed. Such cases are called inversion.

Inversion can occur if a sentence begins with an adverb.

This can happen after here and there or after adverb particles such as back, down, off, up, etc. In such sentences the noun subject comes after the verb. This is common with verbs of motion, such as go and come.
  1. g.: Here comes my friend!

There goes the last train/ (Note the progressive is not used here.)

This kind of inversion is common after to be when we are offering things or identifying location (often with a plural subject):

  1. g.: Here\'s a piece of cake/ (offer).

Here\'s your document/ (offering or indicating).

‘There\'s (stressed) Ann Adams/ (identifyingperson).

Inversion does not occur if the subject is a pronoun:

  1. g.: Here, it comes. There she goes. Up it went.

§ 2. Inversion after negative adverbs. Certain adverbs, when used at the beginning of a sentence, must be followed by auxiliary verbs (be, do, have, can, must, etc.) + subject + the rest of the sentence. This kind of inversion, which may be used for particular emphasis, is typical of formal rhetoric and formal writing. It occurs after the following:

  • negative or near-negative adverbs (often of time or frequency, such as never, rarely, seldom); or adverbs having a negative effect, e. g., little, on no account: e. g., Never/Seldom has there been so much protest against the Bomb. Little does he realize how important this meeting is. On no account must you accept any money if he offers it;
  • nor, nowhere, hardly ... when, scarcely ... when, no sooner... than, e.
    g., He can’t do it; nor can I. Hardly had I fallen asleep when the telephone rang. No sooner had we reached the town than we learned we learned the news.

The word order is, of course, normal when these adverbs do not begin a sentence: e. g., There has never/seldom been so much protest against the Bomb. He little realizes how important this meeting is:

  • combinations with only (e. g., only after, only then): e. g., The pilot reassured the passengers. Only then did I realize how dangerous the situation had been;
  • so + adjective (+ that) and such(+ that): e. g., So sudden was the attack (that) we had no time to escape. Such was his strength that he could bend iron bars;
  • however + adjective or adverb with a subject; adjective or adverb + as or though + subject: e. g., However busy he is (= Busy as he is), he never ref uses to help us. Late thought it is, we’ll stay here a little longer. Fast as they walked, they missed this train.

F.l. Identify inversions in the text “There is an alternative to globalization: it’s localization — a global manifesto” and translate the sentences into Russian.

  1. 2. Rewrite the sentences so that they begin with the words in italics.
  1. There has never been such a display if strength by the workers.
  2. I realized what had happened only later.
  3. You shouldn’t sign the document on any account.
  4. You shouldn’t answer the door when I’m out in any circumstances.
  5. The papyrus was so old, we didn’t dare to touch it.
  1. 3. Rewrite each sentence, starting with the word in brackets, so that it has the same meaning. Translate these sentences into Russian.
  1. The phone rang just as John got into the bath (hardly).
  2. Three days of the holiday had passed before I began to relax, (not until)
  3. The force of the wind was so strong that it flattened the houses, (such)
  4. Management takes no responsibility for loss of belongings, (in no way)
  5. The thief took my wallet and my sunglasses too.
    (not only)
  6. I only knew it wasn’t a fancy dress party any longer when I arrived there in my Superman costume, (only when)
  1. Shortly after I started cooking, there was a power cut. (hardly)
  1. She didn’t know that they were talking about her behind her back. (little)
  2. She never told me that I would have to pay for the make up demonstration. (at no time)
  3. We don’t often get summers like the platform just as the train pulled away, (no sooner)
  4. The earthquake was so devastating that thousands of people were made homeless, (so)
  5. She met George Clooney in a bar, and he took her out to dinner, (not only)
  6. The play started just after I arrived, (no sooner)
  7. Tom didn’t realize how difficult the exam would be. (little)
  8. You must not stay in the building if the fire alarm goes off. (on no condition)
  9. I had hardly ever seen him looking so depressed, (seldom)
  10. The response to the appeal was so great that we managed to raise $ 1 million, (such)
  11. She didn’t find a penny, (not)
  12. You are not allowed to speak during the lecture, (at no time)
  13. He looked so absurd that everybody stared at him. (so)
  14. The demand for the computer game was so great that it sold out in one day. (such)
<< | >>
Источник: Е. Н. Малюга. Английский язык для экономистов: Учебник для вузов / Е. Н. Малюга, Н.              В. Ваванова, Г. Н. Куприянова, И. В. Пушнова. — СПб.: Питер,2005. — 304 с.: ил.. 2005

Еще по теме Grammar notes:

- Авторское право - Аграрное право - Адвокатура - Административное право - Административный процесс - Антимонопольно-конкурентное право - Арбитражный (хозяйственный) процесс - Аудит - Банковская система - Банковское право - Бизнес - Бухгалтерский учет - Вещное право - Государственное право и управление - Гражданское право и процесс - Денежное обращение, финансы и кредит - Деньги - Дипломатическое и консульское право - Договорное право - Жилищное право - Земельное право - Избирательное право - Инвестиционное право - Информационное право - Исполнительное производство - История - История государства и права - История политических и правовых учений - Конкурсное право - Конституционное право - Корпоративное право - Криминалистика - Криминология - Маркетинг - Медицинское право - Международное право - Менеджмент - Муниципальное право - Налоговое право - Наследственное право - Нотариат - Обязательственное право - Оперативно-розыскная деятельность - Права человека - Право зарубежных стран - Право социального обеспечения - Правоведение - Правоохранительная деятельность - Предпринимательское право - Семейное право - Страховое право - Судопроизводство - Таможенное право - Теория государства и права - Трудовое право - Уголовно-исполнительное право - Уголовное право - Уголовный процесс - Философия - Финансовое право - Хозяйственное право - Хозяйственный процесс - Экологическое право - Экономика - Ювенальное право - Юридическая деятельность - Юридическая техника - Юридические лица -