E* Comprehension

Read the text again more thoroughly and answer the questions.

  1. What is culture?
  2. What proposition can be put forward for a corporation?
  3. What broad directions may culture affect?
  4. How will the effect of culture be reflected?
  5. What has Mark Casson suggested in relation to economics and culture?

^ F.

Grammar notes

Modal Verbs: Can (Could), May (Might), Must (Have to), Be to, Should

These modal verbs except for ‘have to’ and ‘be to’ take no-s in the third person singular. In questions they come before the subject and have ‘not’ after them in negations. Modal verbs are followed by an infinitive without to except for ‘have to’ and ‘be to’.

Modal verbs are used to express — ability, possibility, probability, obligation, permission, advice.

‘Can’ — modal verb ‘can (cannot)’ is used to describe ability, opportunity, permission, request, possibility/impossibility.

E. g.: As the radical critique of contemporary economics has argued that some son of economics cannot be value-free, so also can it he suggested that economics as an intellectual endeavour cannot be culture-free.

To describe a future ability ‘will be able to’ is used but not ‘can’.

E. g.: Cultural relationships will be able to exist within an economic environment.

‘Be able/unable to’ is used when ‘can/could’ is grammatically impossible.

E. g.: \'Cultural materialism’ was able to have a clear counterpart in economics, especially in (old’ school of institutional economics.

You cannot use ‘be able to’ with passive constructions.

E. g.: Cultural interactions among members of the group can be modelled as transactions or exchanges of symbolic or material goods within an economizing framework.

‘Could’ expresses ability in the past. This verb is more usual than ‘was able to’.

E. g.: Culture could in some circumstances become a contested phenomenon rather than an area of agreement and harmony.

You can use ‘could/might have’ + past participle to describe a past ability, which was not used or a past opportunity which wasn’t taken.

E. g.: It could/might be suggested that a definition of culture which relies on identifying distinguishing characteristics of groups might be seen to parallel a notion of such groups as societies or as social units within a society.

‘Can/Could’ is translated into Russian as может быть, возможно, мог, etc. (affirmative form); неужели, не может быть, чтобы, etc. (doubt in the interrogative and negative forms).

‘Must + Present Infinitive’ in the affirmative and interrogative sentences expresses the necessity, obligation, duty, advice and order. The negative form mustn’t (must not) usually expresses prohibition (one must not), in other words, it is opposite in meaning to the verb may. Lack of the necessity is expressed by the verb needn’t (need not).

‘Must’ only relates to Present Tense in some cases to Future Tense.

E. g.: Every businessman must understand a language well enough for the purpose of trade.

For expressing obligation in the Past (must + Present Perfect and have to) and Future ‘have to’ + Present Infinitive are used in the necessary forms.

E. g.: He had to take a taxi to get to the airport on time. That must have been the right restaurant. There are no other restaurants in the street. We will have to go to the supermarket tomorrow.

‘Must’ is stronger than ‘have to’ and shows urgency and importance.

‘Must’ is translated into Russian as должен (obligation), должно быть, вероятно, no всей вероятности, etc. (in the affirmative form and in the function of supposition with a great share of assurance.

‘Have to’ is used when the necessity comes from outside the speaker or when other people decide for the speaker what it is necessary to do.


g.: Media consumption groupings across the continent have to differ markedly from many of the other consumer behaviour traits across the continent.

‘Have to’ is translated into Russian as пришлось, придется, приходится, предстоит.

‘Be to + infinitive’ expresses the idea that someone else demands something.

E. g.: The effect of the considerations is not so much to undermine or replace the concept of culture.

‘Be to + infinitive’ is translated into Russian as должен.

‘May’ and ‘Might’ sometimes have virtually the same meaning; they are used to talk about possibilities in the past, present or future. (‘Could’ is also sometimes used). ‘May’ is sometimes a little bit ‘more sure’; whereas might expresses more doubt.

‘May’ and ‘might’ are used in the following cases.

Talking about the present or future with uncertainty.

  1. g.: The impact of culture on the thinking of economists may (might) go further, because the cultural values they inherit or learn have a profound influence on their perception.

Talking about the past with uncertainty.

  1. g.: He may have been upset. I couldn’t really tell if he was annoyed or tired.

Both verbs can also sometimes be used for talking about permission, but usually only in formal situations.

  1. g.: Businessmen may penetrate the bare surface of cultural difference otherwise they will never understand what motivates their foreign business partners.

‘May’: talking about things that can happen in certain situations.

  1. g.: The efforts may capture some of the characteristics of culture in an abstract economy.

‘Might’: saying that something was possible, but did not actually happen.

  1. g.: The fact that economic agents live, breath and make decisions within a cultural environment might have been observable.

‘May’ and ‘might’ are translated into Russian as может быть, возможно.

‘Should’: giving advice.

  1. g.: ‘The book should give foreign audiences an idea of how American negotiators think and act,” said the presenter (present). She should have eaten low fat foods. That might have prevented her heart attack (past).

Obligation: weak form of ‘must’.

The cultural context of economics as a discipline should relate not only to the conditioning of its practitioners but also to the methodology of its discourse.

‘Should’ is translated into Russian as следует, следовсию бы, нужно, не мешало бы, должен (бы).

  1. l. Identify all the modal verbs in the text “Culture in economic performance” and translate the sentences into Russian.
  1. 2. Complete the text with the correct modal verbs.

Understanding Culture

“New Straits Times ” (Malaysia)

Culture as a point of difference ... never more challenged than in

times of conflict.

At a time when Australia as a member of the “Coalition of Willing” is at

war in Iraq, cultural difference particularly testing Muslim and non-

Muslim Australians.

Religion ... inform a big part of culture. And as one participant at a Melbourne seminar on inter-religious dialogue observed, antipathy towards Muslim society              happened over a long period of time in Australia.

Much of this              grown out of ignorance. For many, this ignorance ...

... given rise to fear after the September 11 destruction of the New York

World Trade Center, and the antipathy taken hostile proportions in

the aftermath of the war against terrorism.

And the war in Iraq, for all the assurances to the contrary, seen by

many as representing a clash of civilisations.

The climate ... present a challenge to community groups working in cross-cultural, inter-religious and multi-faith dialogue.

In benign times, understanding of culture seldom...

rise above the “festival.” Culture is celebrated in differences of language, dress, food, music, song and dance.

In times of conflict, more challenging aspects of difference ... surface. And as the war rages in Iraq, the cross-cultural community in Australia works to deal with the challenges. The youth and the school... be necessary starting points.

Attitudes to Australia’s involvement in Iraq is a point of contention across the political spectrum.

Psychologists for the Promotion of World Peace, an interest group of the Australian Psychological Society, commissioned a report to ... help teachers and parents deal with children’s reaction to war.

The visit has come more out of inter-religious dialogue than the psychologists’ report, but the goal ... be in harmony. It expose the young to

broader experiences.

The visit come out of contacts Trotter made in the course of a conference on inter-religious dialogue.

  1. 3. Translate the text from Russian into English paying attention to the modal verbs.


Германская компания Metro Сamp;С начала продавать российские товары под собственным брендом Аго. В московских магазинах компании уже можно купить российские брынзу, майонез и яйца Аго. Программа должна быть выгодна обеим сторонам: Metro, возможно, снизит закупочные цены, а поставщики увеличат объемы продаж.

О планах по продаже товаров российских поставщиков под собственными брендами Metro Сamp;С, в том числе и за границей, стало известно осенью прошлого года. В нескольких восточноевропейских странах Metro уже смогла внедрить схожие программы. Но вскоре, как рассказала «Ведомостям» пресс-секретарь российского подразделения Metro г-жа Белова, можно будет купить корма для собак и кошек фирмы «Крона» (Петербург), фольгу «Саянской фольги» и хлопья предприятия «Союзпищепром» (Челябинск). А вот крабовые палочки и крабовое мясо «РОК-1» (Петербург) помимо России будут продаваться в Чехии, Словакии, Болгарии, Румынии и Польше.

По словам Беловой, некоторые российские товары следовало бы продавать и под брендом «Metro Quality». Белова говорит, что российские товары, которые продаются под особым (private) лейблом компании, должны выбираться в результате проведения специального аудита. Приоритет следует отдавать компаниям, которые способны быстро наращивать объемы производства, т. е. поспевать за ростом самой Metro Сamp;С.

Программа может быть выгодна обеим сторонам, о чем говорят и немецкие торговцы, и российские поставщики: Metro просит снизить закупочные цены, но производители увеличивают объемы реализации.

Однако директор по маркетингу компании «Элинар-бройлер» Валентин Корыпаев считает, что далеко не всем поставщикам следует

торговать под чужими брендами. «Товар под особым лейблом должен быть либо очень дешевым, либо его необходимо закупать по очень низким ценам, а нам это не надо, — говорит он. — Нас устраивает объем, который у нас есть в Metro сейчас. И нам нужно уходить в нишу премиум, а не снижать цены». Торговый дом «Русал Саянская фольга», как рассказал недавно «Ведомостям» его гендиректор Илья Тихомиров, и так поставляет свою продукцию за рубеж, a Metro является лишь одним из возможных экспортных каналов.

  1. 4. Additional grammar material.

Compound Nouns

In English, words, particularly adjectives and nouns, are combined into compound structures in a variety of ways. And once they are formed, they - sometimes metamorphose over time. A common pattern is that two words — fire fly, say — will be joined by a hyphen for a time — fire-fly — and then be joined into one word — firefly. In this respect, a language like German, in which words are happily and immediately linked one to the other, might seem to have an advantage. There is only one sure way to know how to spell compounds in English: use an authoritative dictionary.

There are three forms of compound words:

  • the closed form, in which the words are melded together, such as firefly, secondhand, softball, childlike, redhead, keyboard, makeup, notebook;
  • the hyphenated form, such as daughter-in-law, master-at-arms, over- the-counter, six-pack, six-year-old, mass-produced;
  • and the open form, such as post office, real estate, middle class, full moon, half sister, attorney general.

With a handful of exceptions, compounds created by the addition of a prefix are not hyphenated:

anteroom, antisocial, binomial, biochemistry, coordinate, counterclockwise, extraordinary, infrastructure, interrelated, intramural, macroeconomics, metaphysical, microeconomics, midtown, minibike, multicultural, neoromantic, nonviolent, overanxious,postwar,preconference,pseudointellectual, reunify, semiconductor, socioeconomic, subpar, supertanker, transatlantic, unnatural, underdeveloped.

  1. 5. Match up the compounds correctly and give English definitions:
  1. 2-year;              a)              vacation;
  2. one-week;              b)              education;
  3. African;              c)              force;
4) bull’s; d) tournament;
5) data; e) general;
6) blue-green; 0 pressure;
7) attorney; g) dress;
8) blood; h) -eye;
9) all-city; i) American;
10) half; j) database;
11) first-rate; k) -in-law;
12) daughter; 1) sister;
13) ex; m) person;
14) English-speaking; n) -wife;
15) grand; o) accommodations;
16) grant; P) foot;
17) high-level; q) mother;
18) Italian-American; r) -in-aid;
19) life; s) officials;
20) light; t) club;
21) mayor; U) like;
22) sales; V) year;
23) secretary; w) -elect;
24) stock; X) -treasurer:
25) vice; У) person;
26) well-made; Z) broker;
27) worldwide; aa) president;
28) air;

bh) clothes;

29) ball.

cc) inflation.

<< | >>
Источник: Е. Н. Малюга. Английский язык для экономистов: Учебник для вузов / Е. Н. Малюга, Н.              В. Ваванова, Г. Н. Куприянова, И. В. Пушнова. — СПб.: Питер,2005. — 304 с.: ил.. 2005

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